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    Ultimate Guide to Logging

    Your open-source resource for understanding, analyzing, and troubleshooting system logs

    Using systemctl

    Systemctl is an extremely powerful Linux utility that comes with systemd. It comes with a long list of options for different functionality, the most common of which are starting, stopping, restarting, or reloading a daemon. In the following examples, we will see how we can use systemctl for some of the troubleshooting purposes.

    Listing Units

    To check which services are installed in the local Linux system, execute this command (we are assuming you are the root user).

    # systemctl list-unit-files --type service

    This should show a list of service units installed in the server regardless of their state (enabled, disabled, or static):

    UNIT FILE??????????? STATE
    
    arp-ethers.service??? disabled
    
    auditd.service??????? enabled
    
    autovt@.service?????? disabled
    
    avahi-daemon.service?? enabled
    
    brandbot.service????? static
    
    ...
    
    console-getty.service? disabled
    
    console-shell.service? disabled
    
    cpupower.service????? disabled
    
    crond.service???????? enabled
    
    ...
    
    firewalld.service???? enabled
    
    getty@.service??????? enabled
    
    ...
    
    nginx.service???????? enabled
    
    ...
    
    rsyncd.service??????? disabled
    
    rsyslog.service?????? enabled
    
    sshd-keygen.service?? static
    
    sshd.service????????? enabled
    
    sshd@.service???????? static
    
    ...

    Note, we’ve included only service units here. If you want to check other types of units, you can use appropriate options in the type parameter. This is a quick way to check if a particular application (e.g., MySQL) is available in the server.

    Although checking installed services in a system is useful for administration purposes, we would be more interested in services that are actually running or currently active in memory. There are two ways to check this. The first method will show us which service units are currently loaded and active. The?list-units?parameter with systemctl is used in this case.

    # systemctl list-units --type=service

    The output shows services that are currently loaded and active in memory. However, some services could start and then exit after spawning another service or doing some function. They may still be active, as shown below:

    Output of running systemctl list-units. ? 2019 SolarWinds, Inc. All rights reserved.

    In the second method, you can further fine-tune this command to list only the running services.

    # systemctl list-units --type=service --state=running

    The following command shows the resources a service unit will depend on or the resource units that will depend on this service in recursive manner.

    # systemctl list-dependencies <service_unit_file>

    Running this command against the mysqld.service shows too many dependencies to list all at once, but here’s an excerpt.

    List of dependencies when running the MySQL service. ? 2019 SolarWinds, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Failed Units

    To see which units failed to load or activate, run this command.

    # systemctl --failed

    The output may or may not show any results. But if there are units that failed to load or activate, they’ll be listed here. In the command output shown below, we can see the kdump crash recovery service failed to activate.

    The apache2.service unit failing to start. ? 2019 SolarWinds, Inc. All rights reserved.

    If you suspect a particular service failed, you can use the?is-failed?parameter with systemctl. Taking the example of apache2.service, if we execute the following command:

    # systemctl is-failed apache2.service
    
    failed

    The output is shown as?failed.?The same test against the crond service shows us it did not fail.

    # systemctl is-failed crond.service
    
    active

    Enabled Units

    An enabled unit will automatically start on boot. To check if a service is enabled, use the following command.

    # systemctl is-enabled <service_unit_file>.service

    So, if we want to check if syslog service is enabled, the command is.

    # systemctl is-enabled rsyslog.service

    Depending on the state, the output may be?enabled?or?disabled.

    Systemd-analyze

    Another systemd tool called?systemd-analyze?can provide valuable information about total time taken by the boot process. Executing this command.

    # systemd-analyze

    will show an output like this:

    Startup finished in 8.462s (firmware) + 6.281s (loader) + 14.170s (kernel) + 8.684s (userspace) = 37.598s

    graphical.target reached after 8.679s in userspace

    To see what time each service unit took to load during boot, use the systemd-analyze command with the?blame?option.

    # systemd-analyze blame

    The output will be like this.

    25.265s	accounts-daemon.service
    2.161s	mysql.service
    1.448s	cloud-init-local.service
    1.221s	systemd-udev-settle.service
    1.014s	ifup-wait-all-auto.service
    853ms	cloud-init.service
    697ms	cloud-config.service
    ...

    As you can imagine, this can be a valuable tool to consider if your server is taking a long time to boot and you’re not sure what the cause is. Using the output from this command you can start troubleshooting individual services that are taking too long to load. A good tutorial on systemctl can be found in?DigitalOcean. Another quick reference is in?techmint.

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